Richard Corriere Writing and Research

Books

  1. Going Sane [1].   1975. Citation: Going Sane
  2. The Dream Makers[2]. Citation: Dream Makers
  3. Psychological Fitness[3]. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. CitationL Psychological Fitness
  4. Dream and Waking: The Functional Approach to Dreams.[4] Peace Press. 1980. Citation: Dreaming and Waking
  5. The Functional Analysis of Dreams: A New Theory of Dreaming[5]Citation: The Functional Analysis of Dreams
  6. Life Zones [6].   1987.Citation: Life Zones

 

Published Articles, Presentations and Reports

1975

  1. The Transformation of Dreams. D. Thesis.  University of California, Irvine, 1975. Citation: The Transformation of Dreams

1976

  1. The Transformation of Dreams in Psychotherapy. Psychological and Physiological Studies of Feeling Therapy.  Western Psychological Association. 1976.[8]  PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATION

1977

  1. Toward a new theory of dreaming. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Journal Citation
  2. A Re-Application of the Process Scoring System for Dreams.[10]. Journal Citation
  3. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy. Physiology and Behavior. 1977.[11] Journal Citation
  4. The Functional Theory of Dreaming. Paper Presented at California State Psychological Association. 1977[12]  PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATION
  5. The Functional Approach to Dreams in Psychotherapy. Paper Presented at California State Psychological Association. 1977[13] PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATION
  6. Toward a New Theory of Dreaming. Sleep Research, Vol. 6 BIS/BRI, UCLA. 1977. Journal Citation
  7. Longitudinal Changes in Sleep Patterns of Patients. Sleep Research, Vol. 6 BIS/BRI, UCLA. 1977 Journal Citation
  8. K-Complex changes in the sleep records of patients. Sleep Research, Vol. 6 BIS/BRI, UCLA. 1977.[16]

 

1978

  1. Two Preliminary Studies on Sleep and Psychotherapy.   1978. Journal Citation
  2. Psychophysiological correlates of the spontaneous K-Complex. 1978  Journal Citation
  3. Effects of Psychotherapy on REM Time and REM Latency. 1978. [19] 
  4. Applications of the Process Scoring System to Waking, Dream and Therapy Reports. Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep. 1978.[20]  PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATION
  5. Re-Application of the Process Scoring System for Dreams. Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep.  Journal Citation
  6. Applying the Functional Approach to Dreams. Masters Thesis.  Cammer, S.[22]

1979

  1. The Functional Analysis of Dreams: A New Theory of Dreaming. Journal of Clinical Psychology.Journal Citation

[1] Hart, Joseph; Corriere, Richard; and Binder, Jerry.  Going Sane.  Aaronson. 1975.

[2] Corriere, Richard and Hart, Joseph.  The Dream Makers.  Funk and Wagnalls.  1977.

[3] Corriere, Richard and Hart, Joseph.  Psychological Fitness.  Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.  1978.

[4] Corriere, Richard; Karle, Werner; Woldenberg, Lee and Hart, Joseph.  Peace Press.  1980.

[5] Corriere, Richard; Karle, Werner; Woldenberg, Lee and Hart, Joseph.  Peace Press.  1980.

[6] Corriere, Richard and McGrady.  Life Zones.  William Morrow and Company. 1986.

[7] Corriere, R.  The Transformation of Dreams.  Ph.D. Thesis.  University of California, Irvine, 1975.

[8] Corriere, R. The Transformation of Dreams in Psychotherapy.  Psychological and Physiological Studies of Feeling Therapy.  Western Psychological Association. 1976

[9] Corriere, R.; Hart, J.; Karle, W; Binder, J.; Gold, S.; & Woldenberg, L.  Toward a New Theory of Dreaming.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1977. 33)3), 807-19.

[10] Hartshorn, K.; Corriere, R.; Karle, W; Switzer, A.; Hart, J.; Gold, S.; & Binder, J.  A Re-Application of the Process Scoring System for Dreams.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1977. 33)3), 844-48.

[11] Karle, W.; Hopper, M.; Corriere, R.; Hart, J.; & Switzer, A.  Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.  Physiology and Behavior. 1977. 19 (3), 419-23.

[12] Woldenberg, L. The Functional Theory of Dreaming.  Symposium presented at the meeting of the California State Psychological Association. 1977

[13] Corriere, R.. The Functional Approach to Dreams in Psychotherapy.  Symposium presented at the meeting of the California State Psychological Association. 1977.

[14] Corriere, R.; Hart, J.; Karle, W.; & Woldenberg, L.  Toward a New Theory of Dreaming.  In Chase, M.H., Walter, P.L. (Eds.).  Sleep Research, Vol. 6 BIS/BRI, UCLA. 1977. 121.

[15] Karle, W.; & Hopper, M..  Longitudinal Changes in Sleep Patterns of Patients.  In Chase, M.H., Walter, P.L. (Eds.).  Sleep Research, Vol. 6 BIS/BRI, UCLA. 1977. 149

[16] Karle, W. & Scott, R.  K-Complex changes in the sleep records of patients.  In Chase, M.H., Walter, P.L. (Eds.). Sleep Research, Vol. 6 BIS/BRI, UCLA. 1977. 151.

[17] Karle, W. & Hopper, M. Two Preliminary Studies on Sleep and Psychotherapy.  Psychophysiology.  15 (3), 1978, 273

[18] Scott, R.; Hopper, M, & Karle, W.  Psychophysiological correlates of the spontaneous K-Complex.  Psychophysiology.  15 (3), 273. 1978

[19] Karle, W.; Corriere, R.; Hart, J.; & Hopper, M. Effects of Psychotherapy on REM Time and REM Latency. Meeting for Psychopysiological Resarch.  Madion.  1978.

[20] Corriere, R.; Karle, W.; & Hart, J.  Applications of the Process Scoring System to Waking, Dream and Therapy Reports.  Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep. 1978.

[21] Hartshorn, K., Corriere, R.; Karle, W.;& Hart, J. Re-Application of the Process Scoring System for Dreams. Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep.  1978

[22] Cammer, S. Applying the Functional Approach to Dreams.  Fielding Institute, Santa Barabara. 1978.

[23] Karle, W; Corriere, R.; Hart, J.; Woldenberg, L The Functional Analysis of Dreams: A New Theory of Dreaming.  Journal of Clinical Psychology Monograph Publications. 1979.

Is there a personality difference in Dreams and Waking

Everyone dreams every night.  These night time movies can range from night terrors to amazingly insightful episodes.  The culture of the Senoi people of Malaysia was built around harnessing the power of dreams. The Senoi and Dream Power

Tijana Radeska wrote of the Senoi,  “Maybe one of the most beautiful works based on anthropological research done in the highlands of Malaysia is the book Pygmies and Dream Giants, by anthropologist Kilton Stewart. He wrote about the Senoi, a group of people that he encountered during his trip in Malaysia and their dreaming culture. Stewart first wrote on the subject in his doctoral thesis in 1948, in which he presents an argument about the Senoi’s ability to control their dreams and how they educated their children to master the same ability. The Senoi are a tribe that lives deep in the highlands of Malaysia and can be reached only by a helicopter or a boat. Along with the Negrito and Orang Malayu Asli, the Senoi are one of the three main Orang Asli groups, which are the oldest people of the region, the indigenous of Malaysia. Almost any written source about the tribe discusses the Senoi with dreams, so quite often they are mentioned as “the dream people.”Every morning, a Senoi family would gather for breakfast and the children would start telling their dreams to the elders, and together they would analyze them. They didn’t have an established system of symbols according to which they would interpret the dream, but rather, they would analyze the plot and the story of the dream.”
The Senoi understood the interesting and important intersection between how one’s personality functions during waking and how one’s dream personality functions during REM sleep or dreams.This is quite different than what Freud thought. Freud thought that dreams were the voice of the personal unconscious and needed an expert psychoanalyst to interpret their meanings.  Freud believed that the more disturbed the patient the more symbolic and troubling were his or her dreams.
Carl Jung, one of Freud’s peers, argued that dreams often were messages from the collective unconscious and by understanding them one could gain profound insights into self, personal growth, and the meaningful of life.In my work, The Transformation of Dream, I agreed with both Freud and Jung but went one step further by focusing first and forement, not the dream content, but the process of the dream or how the dreamer’s personality functioned during the dream state.
As my guide I used the dream practices of the Senoi and how they taught members of their tribe to become more active in their dreams and most importantly, how to make dreams useful.  After analyzing thousands of dreams I finally concluded that what the dreamer dreamt about, i.e. the content of the dream, was often directly influenced by how the dreamer functioned during the dream.After years of research, my team and I developed the following Dream Scoring System Journal of Clinical Psychology – The Functional Analysis of Dreams:

1. Is this dreamer ACTIVE or PASSIVE in this dream.  A researcher or dreamer could use a scoring system that went from 1 = toally passive to 5 = active.  We found that the more active the dreamer,  the less confusing and symbolic the dreams were.  To simply the dream scoring system a dreamer could reasonably ask, “Was I active or passive in this dream?”

2. Is this dream CLEAR or UNCLEAR.  Everyone has had a confusing dream which was like a Fellini movie that jumped from one event to the next without any seemingly logical progression.  A second component in the dream scoring system went from 1 = toally confused to 5 = clear and logical.  We found that the clearer the dream was the less confusing and symbolic the dreams were.  To simply the dream scoring system a dreamer could reasonably ask, “Was this dream clear or unclear?”

3. Is this dreamer EXPRESSIVE or UNEXPRESSIVE in this dream.  We found that when a dreamer was EXPRESSIVE in the dream, he or she also tended to be more active.   A researcher or dreamer could use a scoring system that went from 1 = nonexpressive to 5 = expressive.

4. Are the other characters in the dream known or unknown.  We found that when a dreamer has KNOWN characters in the dream, he or she also tended to be more ACTIVE and EXPRESSIVE.   A researcher or dreamer could use a scoring system that went from 1 = unknown to 5 = totally known.

5.  The fifth component of the dream scoring system was feeling.  Are the feelings in this dream clear, i.e., anger, sadness, fear, happiness or were the feelings unclear, i.e., depressed, anxiety, or unknown.  We found that when a dreamer’s feelings were clearly defined he or she tended to be more ACTIVE and EXPRESSIVE and just as importantly the other characters in the dream were KNOWN.   A researcher or dreamer could use a scoring system that went from 1 = unknown feelings to 5 = totally known feelings.

RJ Lang and KP O’Connor in their research paper – Personality, dream content and dream coping style presented research on 130 subjects who completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a Dream Analysis Questionnaire (DAQ), based on retrospective recall.  They sought to further the findings that how a person functioned why awake was related to how they functioned in their dreams.

In their study Lang and O’Connor referred to the earlier research presented by myself and co-workers which suggested there is a parallel between waking behavior and dream behavior.  Psychotherapy Research & Practice. 

We published additional support for the thesis regarding the parallel between the dreaming and waking personality in the Journal of Clinical PsychologyThe Functional Analysis of Dreams: a new theory of dreaming.

One can further review the parallels between dreaming and waking in the following books: The Dream Makers The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking Dreaming and Waking,  and the Functional Analysis of Dreams The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

 

 

 

A Practical Approach to Dreams

Dreams have long been the purview of shamans, healers, witch doctors, psychoanalyists, and newpaper columnist.  What these “dream experts” all have in common is a desire to understand dreams and interpret their meanings.

The goal, of course, has always been to extract from the sleep shrouded one-third of our lives something of value.  Dreams are important.  If they weren’t important, then our evolutionary biology would have eliminated them over the milenium.

And yet, evolution has not stepped in.  Everyone dreams every night.  Paradoxically, a very small percentage of people remember their dreams, no less understand the practical value of dreams.

Does a house represent the personality?  Is a train symbolic of sex? What does it mean when someone from the past appears in a dream? The interpretations of dreams is as varied as the person doing the interpreting.  What is similar to any dream interpretation by a “dream expert” is that it isn’t practical.

After studying thousands of dreams, Transformative Dreams as published in Journal of Clinical Psychology my collegues and I came to the conclusion that we dream because they are important to our physical, intellectual, social and spiritual health.  In fact, we found that dreams were in many ways an inner self talking to us about all of those things.  Now Freud thought this inner self was trying to tell us deep dark secrets.  Some of that is true.  Jung throught this inner self was trying  to tell us universal truths.  Some of that is true.

In a five year study we presented the research facts behind what we saw as A Practical Approach  to Dreams.  First, of all let’s discuss the word practical.  If you have to pay a psychoanalyst $250 an hour to explain your dreams – that is not practical.  Or if you need to go to Haiti and dance around a bonfire in jungle – that is not practical.

My collegues Joseph Hart, Werner Karle and I practical meant, what can an average person do to tap into his or her dreams;  how can an average person understand his or her dreams, and finally, what can a person do to take value from dreams.

Here is what we found. A practical approach gives you a way to recall dreams, understand dreams and use dreams.

Recalling Dreams:  It is actually easy to begin recalling dreams.  All one needs to do is asking yourself, “What did I dream last night?”  That may sound simplistic but in fact it is like learning to stretch.  If you ask yourself the question, you begin to think about it.  We found that people could not only learn to recall their dreams but they could in time, recall multiple dreams from a single night.

Understnding Dreams:  To understand dreams our focus was counter to Freud, Jung and Shamans.  What the content of dreams change frequently, we found HOW the dreamer was in his or her dream was very consistent.  We know WHAT a person dreamt about changed every night.  One night you might dream of work and tomorrow night you might be in a strange city fighting gangs.  HOW you were in the dream was the key to understanding your dreams.

The Practical Approach to Dreams simply has dreamer ask him or herself a few dream questions.  Over the years, I have taken the liberaty to simplify and reduce the questions we used in our research.  In that regard here are three useful questions to help understand your dreams. 

1. Was I ACTIVE or PASSIVE in this dream?  If one is active in dreams then you are in control of the dream.  When one is passive you are the victim in the dream.  Think about it this way, if you HOW you are is PASSIVE in your dreams then you can literally dream up all kinds of scenarios where you are the victim.  By asking the ACTIVE/PASSIVE question one comes to understand dreams in a new way – “when I am passive in my dreams I am a victim in my dreams.”  Conversely, “when I am active in my dreams I am in control.”

2. Was I EXPRESSIVE or NON-EXPRESSIVE in this dream?  If one is expressive in dreams then you are in control of the dream.  When one is non-expressive in dreams you are often the victim in the dream.  By asking the ACTIVE/PASSIVE question one comes to understand dreams in a new way – “when I am passive in my dreams I am a victim in my dreams.”  Conversely, “when I am active in my dreams I am in control.”

3. Are the people in my dream KNOWN or UNKNOWN to me?  If the people in your dreams are KNOWN to you then you have a greater chance of understanding how you are thinking and feelings about these real-life people.  On the other hand, if the people in your dreams are UNKNOWN to you then look see if you find yourself PASSIVE and NON-EXPRESSIVE.

These Practical ideas about dream are more fully describe in my three books on dreams:  The The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking,  and The Functional Analysis of Dreams, The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

 

A New Understanding of Dreams

Richard Corriere and his colleagues proposed in this research article A New Theory of Dreaming  use research findings and detailed analysis to argue that there is a simpler and more down-to-earth way of understanding dreams.

They credit their understanding to the anthropologist Kilton Stewart and his work with the primitive tribe in Malaysia, the Senoi.  Corriere and his colleagues Joseph Hart and Werner Karle explored anthropology studies on the Senoi because they were unhappy with the complexities and subjective nature of dream interpretation.

What is unique about the Senoi is how their understanding of dreams is dramatically different than the dream beliefs of the hostile tribes surrounding them.  The tribes surrounding the Senoi used shaman’s to interpret their dreams while the Senoi focused on how they acted in their dreams.

The Senoi teach DREAM SKILLS to their children.  These skills teach the Senoi childrento be powerful in their dreams, to speak with authority, call on friends for help and advice, and to make the dream give benefits, not only to the dreamer, but to the dreamer’s community.

Instead of asking what does this dream mean, the Senoi asked HOW were you, the dreamer, acting in the dream.  Were you strong?  Were you a leader?  Did you call on friends?  Corriere’s research found that when a dreamer was strong,  a leader, and able to connect with friends then the dream needed no interpretation.  The dream was lucid and clear in and of itself.

The question then became how to achieve in modern society the same dream results as the Senoi.  During a five year study Corriere and his colleagues found that by teaching life skills to subjects in waking, these skills were transferred to dreaming.

When a person learned in waking to speak up clearly, take leadership role, and ask for advice from friends, those same skills were reflected in their dreams.  Corriere and his team developed The Process Scoring System to measure how a dreamer was in his or her dreams.

Corriere’s ideas are defined in his three books on dreams:  The Dream Makers The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking Dreaming and Waking,  and the Functional Analysis of Dreams The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

This research and the training that goes with it has lead to a new understanding of dreams.  This understanding states it is not WHAT you dream about that is important but HOW you are in a dream that makes the dream important.

 

 

Dreams are important everyday

Sigmund Freud has dominated dream research and the everyday understanding of dreams.  People want to know “what does my dream mean?”  Richard Corriere and his co-researchers presented in the Journal of Clinical Psychology a second study which offers dream researchers and everyday people a new way of understanding dreams.

A reapplication of the process scoring system for dreams

In their innovative research they asked “HOW does the dreamer act in the dream” vs. “WHAT do the symbols in the dream mean.  The team developed, tested and presented findings that show a new way to score dreams which is closer to understanding how an athlete performs in terms of speed, agility, and overall performance.

Their study spanning over five years found that a dreamer could learn to perform at a higher level in his or her dreams by learning new skills in waking.

Corriere’s research began from his anthropological studies of the study of the Senoi Tribe of Malaysia Source .  The Senoi taught their children f to be strong in their dreams and to confront bad or evil characters.  One of the Senoi’s key teachings was that the dream had to bring gifts to the dreamer.  For example, how to make a better boat, a dance or song that helped the tribe, or a beneficial discovery.  The Senoi teach their children to re-dream dreams until they were strong, in control,  and calling on friends to help them overcome difficulties.  The Senoi then went further to apply these same teachings to waking life skills.

Corriere formulated that Social Sciences could learn from the Senoi by focusing on  teaching the skills people needed to learn to be productive members of society.

Corriere’s ideas are defined in his three books on dreams:  The Dream Makers The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking Dreaming and Waking,  and the Functional Analysis of Dreams The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

Dreaming and Waking:  http://www.worldcat.org/title/dreaming-waking-the-functional-approach-to-dreams/oclc/6708523&referer=brief_results

 

The anthropology of dreaming

A reapplication of the process scoring system for dreams

In a Journal of Clinical Psychology Richard Corriere and his colleagues Hartshorn, Hart, Karle and Switzer replicated their original research which described a new  way to analyze and understand dreams.  The first study done over five  years found that how the dreamer acted in dreams was a powerful determinate of dreams content.

For example, if the dreamer was passive in the dream the dream content was often confusing and highly symbolic and if the dreamer was silent and non-expressive the dream often portrayed the dreamer as a victim in the dream.

The research found then when the dreamer was expressive and active in the dream the dream was often positive.

The inspiration for Corriere’s research came from his anthropological studies of the study of the Senoi Tribe of Malaysia.  The Senoi were known as a non-violent, highly productive society that taught their children from their earliest days to be strong in their dreams and to confront bad or evil characters.  They had children learn to re-dream dreams until they were strong, active, speaking and calling on friends to help them while sleeping.  The Senoi then went further to apply these same teachings to waking life skills.

Corriere began to understand how the current field of social science was 180 degrees different from the Senoi.  Social Sciences instead of teaching the skills people needed to learn to be productive members of society was focused on what went wrong with people and societies.  The Senoi were looking ahead to how to make life better while Social Science was looking at what went wrong.  The light bulb turned on.

Corriere’s ideas are defined in his three books on dreams:   The Dream MakersDM Source FrenchDreaming and Waking,  and The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

 

Dreams, Waking, and Therapy – the common thread between them

Richard Corriere and his co-researchers in the article Applications of the Process Scoring System to Waking, Dream and Therapy Reports presented in the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep showed the common thread between a person’s behavior in waking, while dreaming and in therapy. between reported waking experiences and reported dreams.

Corriere and his collegues found that how a person perceived him or herself in waking situations, in dreams and in therapy were remarkably similar.

THE COMMON THREAD:  At first glance it appears that waking experiences, dreams, and therapy experiences would be quite different.  What Corriere and his collegues found that HOW a person was in each situation was remarkably similar.  For example, if a person is generally PASSIVE in everyday situations the researcher found that person would be generally PASSIVE in his or her dreams and in therapy.

SKILLS:  In a radical departure from traditional thinking Corriere and his collegues found that very often people who were seen as disturbed were in fact deficient in specific life skills.  They did not in any way say that were are certain groups of people who either through trauma, abuse, or genetic anomalies experienced PTSD, breaks with reality, and exhibited destructive behavior that require the intervention of skilled professionals.  However, for many people lacking skills, they found that given support from peers they could learn the skills they need and find marked improvement in their functioning.

The researchers found that as subjects learned to be more active and expressive in life these skills were reflected in both their reported dreams, waking, and therapy experiences.  Corriere and his co-researchers developed a new scoring system Application of the Process Scoring System to waking, dream and therapy reports to bring a more scientific and measureable process to their previously very subjective experiences.

Richard Corriere Posts, Research & Ideas

The Mindful Manager

 

 

American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association published a research article by Richard Corriere and his colleagues Werner Karle, Judy Klein and Joseph Hart entitled The Personal Orientation Inventory and the Eysenck Personality Inventory as outcome measures in a private outpatient clinic.  Journal Citation

Using standardize psychological tests the researchers found that time in therapy increased subjects extra-version scores and decreased their neuroticism scores. What is important about this study is that the increase in extra-version was driven by subjects learning new skills rather than undergoing traditional psychotherapy.  The authors argued that learning new is essential to one’s sense of well being.  Lack of skills is often displayed with inappropriate behaviors which are incorrectly diagnosed as various psychological problems.

Focusing on one’s problems eaves little room for self-improvement.  On the other hand, thinking of one self as a life athlete who can learn new skills opens up a world of growth and confidence.

Corriere’s ideas on bringing the idea of Psychological Fitness are found in his three books:  Life ZonesPsychological Fitness, Source French  and Going Sane. Each of the three books builds on the concept that few people are truly mentally disturbed and most people suffer because they lack basic life skills.  Skills which can be learned through practice.

Richard Corriere Research

The Mindful Manager

 

Journal of Clinical Psychology Dreams

In a five year study of dreams, Corriere and his co-workers found it is possible to shift from a symbolic state of drea,omg to a directly expressive mode of dreaming which reflected the influence of anthropology studies of the Senoi.

Additionally, Corriere and his colleagues found parallels in the behaviors used by a subject while dreaming and awake. In contrast to Freud’s analytic theory, which interprets dreams as coded symbolic messages, the new theory of dream focuses on the dreamer learning from his or her own dreams. Journal Citation

Corriere’s ideas are defined in his three books on dreams:  The Dream Makers,   Dreaming and Waking,  and The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

Richard Corriere Research

The Mindful Manager

 

 

 

 

Ebony Magazine on Dreams

Ebony magazine’s article about the innovative dream research of Richard Corriere titled Change your Dreams and You Might Change Your Life  Source presented a new way a person can understand and use their dreams to help guide their life.

The Ebony article was based on the research article, Toward A New Theory of Dreaming which  explored the dream research of Richard Corriere as published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology.  Volume 33Issue 3pages 807–820July 1977

In the article Richard Corriere stated it more important to understand how a dreamer was in the dream vs. what the dream was about.  For example, was the dreamer active or passive in the dream.  It was found that if a dreamer was passive in the dream then the dream was often troubled, confusing, and upsetting.  On the other hand when the dream was active the dreams often had clear story lines, positive outcomes, and were perceived as pleasant.

Corriere’s ideas on dreams are defined in his three :  The Dream Makers The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking Dreaming and Waking,  and the Functional Analysis of Dreams The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-4679(197707)33:3%3C807::AID-JCLP2270330344%3E3.0.CO;2-N/abstract

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