Is there a personality difference in Dreams and Waking

Everyone dreams every night.  These night time movies can range from night terrors to amazingly insightful episodes.  The culture of the Senoi people of Malaysia was built around harnessing the power of dreams. The Senoi and Dream Power

Tijana Radeska wrote of the Senoi,  “Maybe one of the most beautiful works based on anthropological research done in the highlands of Malaysia is the book Pygmies and Dream Giants, by anthropologist Kilton Stewart. He wrote about the Senoi, a group of people that he encountered during his trip in Malaysia and their dreaming culture. Stewart first wrote on the subject in his doctoral thesis in 1948, in which he presents an argument about the Senoi’s ability to control their dreams and how they educated their children to master the same ability. The Senoi are a tribe that lives deep in the highlands of Malaysia and can be reached only by a helicopter or a boat. Along with the Negrito and Orang Malayu Asli, the Senoi are one of the three main Orang Asli groups, which are the oldest people of the region, the indigenous of Malaysia. Almost any written source about the tribe discusses the Senoi with dreams, so quite often they are mentioned as “the dream people.”Every morning, a Senoi family would gather for breakfast and the children would start telling their dreams to the elders, and together they would analyze them. They didn’t have an established system of symbols according to which they would interpret the dream, but rather, they would analyze the plot and the story of the dream.”
The Senoi understood the interesting and important intersection between how one’s personality functions during waking and how one’s dream personality functions during REM sleep or dreams.This is quite different than what Freud thought. Freud thought that dreams were the voice of the personal unconscious and needed an expert psychoanalyst to interpret their meanings.  Freud believed that the more disturbed the patient the more symbolic and troubling were his or her dreams.
Carl Jung, one of Freud’s peers, argued that dreams often were messages from the collective unconscious and by understanding them one could gain profound insights into self, personal growth, and the meaningful of life.In my work, The Transformation of Dream, I agreed with both Freud and Jung but went one step further by focusing first and forement, not the dream content, but the process of the dream or how the dreamer’s personality functioned during the dream state.
As my guide I used the dream practices of the Senoi and how they taught members of their tribe to become more active in their dreams and most importantly, how to make dreams useful.  After analyzing thousands of dreams I finally concluded that what the dreamer dreamt about, i.e. the content of the dream, was often directly influenced by how the dreamer functioned during the dream.After years of research, my team and I developed the following Dream Scoring System Journal of Clinical Psychology – The Functional Analysis of Dreams:

1. Is this dreamer ACTIVE or PASSIVE in this dream.  A researcher or dreamer could use a scoring system that went from 1 = toally passive to 5 = active.  We found that the more active the dreamer,  the less confusing and symbolic the dreams were.  To simply the dream scoring system a dreamer could reasonably ask, “Was I active or passive in this dream?”

2. Is this dream CLEAR or UNCLEAR.  Everyone has had a confusing dream which was like a Fellini movie that jumped from one event to the next without any seemingly logical progression.  A second component in the dream scoring system went from 1 = toally confused to 5 = clear and logical.  We found that the clearer the dream was the less confusing and symbolic the dreams were.  To simply the dream scoring system a dreamer could reasonably ask, “Was this dream clear or unclear?”

3. Is this dreamer EXPRESSIVE or UNEXPRESSIVE in this dream.  We found that when a dreamer was EXPRESSIVE in the dream, he or she also tended to be more active.   A researcher or dreamer could use a scoring system that went from 1 = nonexpressive to 5 = expressive.

4. Are the other characters in the dream known or unknown.  We found that when a dreamer has KNOWN characters in the dream, he or she also tended to be more ACTIVE and EXPRESSIVE.   A researcher or dreamer could use a scoring system that went from 1 = unknown to 5 = totally known.

5.  The fifth component of the dream scoring system was feeling.  Are the feelings in this dream clear, i.e., anger, sadness, fear, happiness or were the feelings unclear, i.e., depressed, anxiety, or unknown.  We found that when a dreamer’s feelings were clearly defined he or she tended to be more ACTIVE and EXPRESSIVE and just as importantly the other characters in the dream were KNOWN.   A researcher or dreamer could use a scoring system that went from 1 = unknown feelings to 5 = totally known feelings.

RJ Lang and KP O’Connor in their research paper – Personality, dream content and dream coping style presented research on 130 subjects who completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a Dream Analysis Questionnaire (DAQ), based on retrospective recall.  They sought to further the findings that how a person functioned why awake was related to how they functioned in their dreams.

In their study Lang and O’Connor referred to the earlier research presented by myself and co-workers which suggested there is a parallel between waking behavior and dream behavior.  Psychotherapy Research & Practice. 

We published additional support for the thesis regarding the parallel between the dreaming and waking personality in the Journal of Clinical PsychologyThe Functional Analysis of Dreams: a new theory of dreaming.

One can further review the parallels between dreaming and waking in the following books: The Dream Makers The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking Dreaming and Waking,  and the Functional Analysis of Dreams The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

 

 

 

A Practical Approach to Dreams

Dreams have long been the purview of shamans, healers, witch doctors, psychoanalyists, and newpaper columnist.  What these “dream experts” all have in common is a desire to understand dreams and interpret their meanings.

The goal, of course, has always been to extract from the sleep shrouded one-third of our lives something of value.  Dreams are important.  If they weren’t important, then our evolutionary biology would have eliminated them over the milenium.

And yet, evolution has not stepped in.  Everyone dreams every night.  Paradoxically, a very small percentage of people remember their dreams, no less understand the practical value of dreams.

Does a house represent the personality?  Is a train symbolic of sex? What does it mean when someone from the past appears in a dream? The interpretations of dreams is as varied as the person doing the interpreting.  What is similar to any dream interpretation by a “dream expert” is that it isn’t practical.

After studying thousands of dreams, Transformative Dreams as published in Journal of Clinical Psychology my collegues and I came to the conclusion that we dream because they are important to our physical, intellectual, social and spiritual health.  In fact, we found that dreams were in many ways an inner self talking to us about all of those things.  Now Freud thought this inner self was trying to tell us deep dark secrets.  Some of that is true.  Jung throught this inner self was trying  to tell us universal truths.  Some of that is true.

In a five year study we presented the research facts behind what we saw as A Practical Approach  to Dreams.  First, of all let’s discuss the word practical.  If you have to pay a psychoanalyst $250 an hour to explain your dreams – that is not practical.  Or if you need to go to Haiti and dance around a bonfire in jungle – that is not practical.

My collegues Joseph Hart, Werner Karle and I practical meant, what can an average person do to tap into his or her dreams;  how can an average person understand his or her dreams, and finally, what can a person do to take value from dreams.

Here is what we found. A practical approach gives you a way to recall dreams, understand dreams and use dreams.

Recalling Dreams:  It is actually easy to begin recalling dreams.  All one needs to do is asking yourself, “What did I dream last night?”  That may sound simplistic but in fact it is like learning to stretch.  If you ask yourself the question, you begin to think about it.  We found that people could not only learn to recall their dreams but they could in time, recall multiple dreams from a single night.

Understnding Dreams:  To understand dreams our focus was counter to Freud, Jung and Shamans.  What the content of dreams change frequently, we found HOW the dreamer was in his or her dream was very consistent.  We know WHAT a person dreamt about changed every night.  One night you might dream of work and tomorrow night you might be in a strange city fighting gangs.  HOW you were in the dream was the key to understanding your dreams.

The Practical Approach to Dreams simply has dreamer ask him or herself a few dream questions.  Over the years, I have taken the liberaty to simplify and reduce the questions we used in our research.  In that regard here are three useful questions to help understand your dreams. 

1. Was I ACTIVE or PASSIVE in this dream?  If one is active in dreams then you are in control of the dream.  When one is passive you are the victim in the dream.  Think about it this way, if you HOW you are is PASSIVE in your dreams then you can literally dream up all kinds of scenarios where you are the victim.  By asking the ACTIVE/PASSIVE question one comes to understand dreams in a new way – “when I am passive in my dreams I am a victim in my dreams.”  Conversely, “when I am active in my dreams I am in control.”

2. Was I EXPRESSIVE or NON-EXPRESSIVE in this dream?  If one is expressive in dreams then you are in control of the dream.  When one is non-expressive in dreams you are often the victim in the dream.  By asking the ACTIVE/PASSIVE question one comes to understand dreams in a new way – “when I am passive in my dreams I am a victim in my dreams.”  Conversely, “when I am active in my dreams I am in control.”

3. Are the people in my dream KNOWN or UNKNOWN to me?  If the people in your dreams are KNOWN to you then you have a greater chance of understanding how you are thinking and feelings about these real-life people.  On the other hand, if the people in your dreams are UNKNOWN to you then look see if you find yourself PASSIVE and NON-EXPRESSIVE.

These Practical ideas about dream are more fully describe in my three books on dreams:  The The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking,  and The Functional Analysis of Dreams, The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

 

A New Understanding of Dreams

Richard Corriere and his colleagues proposed in this research article A New Theory of Dreaming  use research findings and detailed analysis to argue that there is a simpler and more down-to-earth way of understanding dreams.

They credit their understanding to the anthropologist Kilton Stewart and his work with the primitive tribe in Malaysia, the Senoi.  Corriere and his colleagues Joseph Hart and Werner Karle explored anthropology studies on the Senoi because they were unhappy with the complexities and subjective nature of dream interpretation.

What is unique about the Senoi is how their understanding of dreams is dramatically different than the dream beliefs of the hostile tribes surrounding them.  The tribes surrounding the Senoi used shaman’s to interpret their dreams while the Senoi focused on how they acted in their dreams.

The Senoi teach DREAM SKILLS to their children.  These skills teach the Senoi childrento be powerful in their dreams, to speak with authority, call on friends for help and advice, and to make the dream give benefits, not only to the dreamer, but to the dreamer’s community.

Instead of asking what does this dream mean, the Senoi asked HOW were you, the dreamer, acting in the dream.  Were you strong?  Were you a leader?  Did you call on friends?  Corriere’s research found that when a dreamer was strong,  a leader, and able to connect with friends then the dream needed no interpretation.  The dream was lucid and clear in and of itself.

The question then became how to achieve in modern society the same dream results as the Senoi.  During a five year study Corriere and his colleagues found that by teaching life skills to subjects in waking, these skills were transferred to dreaming.

When a person learned in waking to speak up clearly, take leadership role, and ask for advice from friends, those same skills were reflected in their dreams.  Corriere and his team developed The Process Scoring System to measure how a dreamer was in his or her dreams.

Corriere’s ideas are defined in his three books on dreams:  The Dream Makers The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking Dreaming and Waking,  and the Functional Analysis of Dreams The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

This research and the training that goes with it has lead to a new understanding of dreams.  This understanding states it is not WHAT you dream about that is important but HOW you are in a dream that makes the dream important.

 

 

Dreams are important everyday

Sigmund Freud has dominated dream research and the everyday understanding of dreams.  People want to know “what does my dream mean?”  Richard Corriere and his co-researchers presented in the Journal of Clinical Psychology a second study which offers dream researchers and everyday people a new way of understanding dreams.

A reapplication of the process scoring system for dreams

In their innovative research they asked “HOW does the dreamer act in the dream” vs. “WHAT do the symbols in the dream mean.  The team developed, tested and presented findings that show a new way to score dreams which is closer to understanding how an athlete performs in terms of speed, agility, and overall performance.

Their study spanning over five years found that a dreamer could learn to perform at a higher level in his or her dreams by learning new skills in waking.

Corriere’s research began from his anthropological studies of the study of the Senoi Tribe of Malaysia Source .  The Senoi taught their children f to be strong in their dreams and to confront bad or evil characters.  One of the Senoi’s key teachings was that the dream had to bring gifts to the dreamer.  For example, how to make a better boat, a dance or song that helped the tribe, or a beneficial discovery.  The Senoi teach their children to re-dream dreams until they were strong, in control,  and calling on friends to help them overcome difficulties.  The Senoi then went further to apply these same teachings to waking life skills.

Corriere formulated that Social Sciences could learn from the Senoi by focusing on  teaching the skills people needed to learn to be productive members of society.

Corriere’s ideas are defined in his three books on dreams:  The Dream Makers The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking Dreaming and Waking,  and the Functional Analysis of Dreams The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

Dreaming and Waking:  http://www.worldcat.org/title/dreaming-waking-the-functional-approach-to-dreams/oclc/6708523&referer=brief_results

 

The anthropology of dreaming

A reapplication of the process scoring system for dreams

In a Journal of Clinical Psychology Richard Corriere and his colleagues Hartshorn, Hart, Karle and Switzer replicated their original research which described a new  way to analyze and understand dreams.  The first study done over five  years found that how the dreamer acted in dreams was a powerful determinate of dreams content.

For example, if the dreamer was passive in the dream the dream content was often confusing and highly symbolic and if the dreamer was silent and non-expressive the dream often portrayed the dreamer as a victim in the dream.

The research found then when the dreamer was expressive and active in the dream the dream was often positive.

The inspiration for Corriere’s research came from his anthropological studies of the study of the Senoi Tribe of Malaysia.  The Senoi were known as a non-violent, highly productive society that taught their children from their earliest days to be strong in their dreams and to confront bad or evil characters.  They had children learn to re-dream dreams until they were strong, active, speaking and calling on friends to help them while sleeping.  The Senoi then went further to apply these same teachings to waking life skills.

Corriere began to understand how the current field of social science was 180 degrees different from the Senoi.  Social Sciences instead of teaching the skills people needed to learn to be productive members of society was focused on what went wrong with people and societies.  The Senoi were looking ahead to how to make life better while Social Science was looking at what went wrong.  The light bulb turned on.

Corriere’s ideas are defined in his three books on dreams:   The Dream MakersDM Source FrenchDreaming and Waking,  and The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

 

American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association published a research article by Richard Corriere and his colleagues Werner Karle, Judy Klein and Joseph Hart entitled The Personal Orientation Inventory and the Eysenck Personality Inventory as outcome measures in a private outpatient clinic.  Journal Citation

Using standardize psychological tests the researchers found that time in therapy increased subjects extra-version scores and decreased their neuroticism scores. What is important about this study is that the increase in extra-version was driven by subjects learning new skills rather than undergoing traditional psychotherapy.  The authors argued that learning new is essential to one’s sense of well being.  Lack of skills is often displayed with inappropriate behaviors which are incorrectly diagnosed as various psychological problems.

Focusing on one’s problems eaves little room for self-improvement.  On the other hand, thinking of one self as a life athlete who can learn new skills opens up a world of growth and confidence.

Corriere’s ideas on bringing the idea of Psychological Fitness are found in his three books:  Life ZonesPsychological Fitness, Source French  and Going Sane. Each of the three books builds on the concept that few people are truly mentally disturbed and most people suffer because they lack basic life skills.  Skills which can be learned through practice.

Richard Corriere Research

The Mindful Manager

 

Journal of Clinical Psychology Dreams

In a five year study of dreams, Corriere and his co-workers found it is possible to shift from a symbolic state of drea,omg to a directly expressive mode of dreaming which reflected the influence of anthropology studies of the Senoi.

Additionally, Corriere and his colleagues found parallels in the behaviors used by a subject while dreaming and awake. In contrast to Freud’s analytic theory, which interprets dreams as coded symbolic messages, the new theory of dream focuses on the dreamer learning from his or her own dreams. Journal Citation

Corriere’s ideas are defined in his three books on dreams:  The Dream Makers,   Dreaming and Waking,  and The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

Richard Corriere Research

The Mindful Manager

 

 

 

 

Ebony Magazine on Dreams

Ebony magazine’s article about the innovative dream research of Richard Corriere titled Change your Dreams and You Might Change Your Life  Source presented a new way a person can understand and use their dreams to help guide their life.

The Ebony article was based on the research article, Toward A New Theory of Dreaming which  explored the dream research of Richard Corriere as published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology.  Volume 33Issue 3pages 807–820July 1977

In the article Richard Corriere stated it more important to understand how a dreamer was in the dream vs. what the dream was about.  For example, was the dreamer active or passive in the dream.  It was found that if a dreamer was passive in the dream then the dream was often troubled, confusing, and upsetting.  On the other hand when the dream was active the dreams often had clear story lines, positive outcomes, and were perceived as pleasant.

Corriere’s ideas on dreams are defined in his three :  The Dream Makers The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking Dreaming and Waking,  and the Functional Analysis of Dreams The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-4679(197707)33:3%3C807::AID-JCLP2270330344%3E3.0.CO;2-N/abstract

https://plus.google.com/u/0/+RichardCorriere/posts

http://Richardcorriere.com

http://richardcorriereconsulting.com

 

Life Skills and Life Coaching

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In a series of research articles published in the Journal Psychotherapy Research and Practice Richard Corriere and his colleagues Joseph Hart, Werner Karle, and Judy Klein argued that the psychological concepts  of being “sick” and “getting well” through therapy were not particularly useful in motivating the majority of people who would never have the money and time to see a professional therapist.

In the article the researchers found that as subjects learned new skills through life coaching they scored better on two traditional psychological tests The Personal Orientation Inventory  and The Eysenck Personality Inventory.

The Personal Orientation Inventory measures a subjects self-actualization which is a positive measurement of state of well-being while the Eysenck Personality Inventory measures introversion/neuroticism vs. extraversion/well-being.

The researchers found that as subjects mastered practical life skills their self-actualization scores as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory dramatically improved.  Self-actualization is a positive measure of how effectively a person is moving toward a true sense of life competency and achievement.  Conversely, the researchers found that as subjects learned new skills they showed decreased scores in neuroticism as measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory.  Additionally, subjects were found to increase their extraversion scores as their self-actualization increased and their neuroticism decreased.

MOST EFFECTIVE WAY TO LEARN:  Corriere and his co-researches then asked what is the most effective way of learning skills.  They found the answer in the research of the highly regarded educator Benjamin Bloom.

Dr. Bloom’s research conclusively showed that people learn by practice and mastery.  Perhaps the most powerful finding was that any student can reach the top 20% of the class through learning.  Bloom’s ideas were completely counter to traditional thinking in education and psychology.  Instead of focusing on what a student doesn’t know, Bloom showed that teaching was about mastering one thing at a time and then moving to the next progressive step.

Based on Bloom’s research, Corriere concluded that much of time psychologist spent “talking to” their patients failed to follow an effective learning model.  It was not that what was said was incorrect, it was just not systematic and often failed to use mastery of a new skills as an essential component of the therapy.  He then wondered if these ineffective methods could be replaced by teaching/coaching the s patients to learn new skills.

COACHING VS. THERAPY:  Corriere and his co-workers developed coaching methods which they detailed in the book Psychological Fitness.  Coaching uses a common sense and direct feedback approach.  The “sick patient” is replaced with the aspiring life athlete.  Corriere made sure to point out that there are a small percentage of people who display significant mental health issues and they need medication and often long term institutional treatment and that the coaching program would not work for them.

Much of the work in Psychological Fitness was modeled after the legendary UCLA Basketball coach John Wooden.  Wooden won ten national NCAA basketball championships by having his players focus on what they did the best.  Corriere translated Wooden’s concept by focusing on “you as your best” as the personal and internal guide a person can use to direct his/her own life.

THE GOAL:  Corriere’s work reflects the influence of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Abraham Maslow.  Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi described in his extensive research a self-guiding experience when a person was performing at his or her very best.  He called this experience – flow.  When a person learns skills and masters them that person will enter into a high performance state which he or she describes as effortless. Abram Maslow developed the concept of self-actualization which is the natural tendency to work toward one’s highest potential.

Each of these influences focus on a positive sense of self, self-directed living, and learning skills.  Feeling good was no longer limited to an absence of problems but a determined sense of well-being driven by competence.

COST VS. POLITICS. Corriere and his co-workers in addressing the high cost of traditional therapy developed a program which enabled people to redefine their problems in terms of what skills they needed to learn.  Skills which could be taught by peers and non-professionals.   This movement toward self-help and co-therapy brought down the wrath of traditional mental health professionals because they were Teaching Peers to help each other.  The clash of ideology resulted in revocation of their standing as licensed psychologists.

In what now is see as a politically and financially motivated attack traditional psychologists viewed the work of Corriere and his co-workers as threatening their hold on traditional therapy and profits.  Instead of being restricted to professional therapist, people could get coaching from peers all of their lives.

BOOKS:  These research findings were later expanded in three books:  Psychological Fitness;  Going Sane; Life Zones.  These books argue that people who have developed life skills feel and perform better than those who do not possess the same skills.  When a person does not have basic life skills they manifest what traditional psychology refers to as symptoms.  Symptoms are directly reflective of a lack of skills.  What is troubling for a person is that given the same situation with the same skills they repeat unproductive behavior.  The good news is that with new life skills given the same situation they change their behavior and derive desired outcomes.

The Mindful Manager by Richard Corriere

Richard Corriere’s writing, articles, and research

 

 

 

 

Forty Years of Research, Writing and Learning

Looking back over forty years of consulting, coaching, writing, research, and business entrepreneurship, and the clutter that has been accumulated along the way I am come to the conclusion that learning has no end.

What I thought was true yesterday, has been proven inadequate today.  And yet, time and again, I find that what I learn tomorrow brings to the surface many of the ideas and concepts that I much too hastily disgarded.

A BRIEF HISTORY:  Research, Consulting, and Technology

RESEARCH:  I began doing research with Professor Joseph Hart as an undergraduate.  He was studying the physiological measurement of human performance using Electroencephalograms (EEG), heart rate and blood pressure measurements.

During my work with Dr. Hart we explored the differences in brain wave activity of people who were engaged in meditation and other mental activities.  We wanted to know if people could control various physiological measurements as they performed various tasks.

I continued the work as co-research director of the Center Foundation.  During time my collegue Werner Karle and I did extensive research on the interconnections between stimuli perception, reaction time to the stimuli, one’s emotional labeling of the stimuli and corresponding physilogical reactions in terms of heart and blood pressure.

SUMMARY FINDINGS:  Our research showed that people could in fact LEARN to control their physiology and significantly improve their performance.  Our findings were consistent with the work of hundreds of other researchers who had studied the same processes over decades.

RESEARCH FINDINGS:  HUMAN PERFORMANCE (See list of research articles below)

  1. HIGH PERFORMANCE IS A FUNCTION OF FOCUS.  We found that high performance across a variety of tests in terms of reaction time and accurate perception of visual or auditory stimuli was a function of focus.  We found that people with a “negative perceptual set” were slower to react and less likely to accurate perceive incoming stimuli than subjects who had “positive perceptual sets.”  When a person who involved with internal stimuli, i.e. worry, anxiety, depression they had slower reaction times to presented stimuli and higher physiological responses, i.e. increase heart rate and blood pressure.
  2. NEGATIVE PEOPLE SEE MORE THINGS AS NEGATIVE.  People who reacted slower to any type of stimuli had slower reaction times, reported more negative ratings of stimuli and show much greater physiological volitility when presented  with any type of stimuli.  In lay terms, we found that people, for whatever reason, who had a negative outlook on life perceived more incoming stimuli as negative, they reacted slower to that stimuli and their physiology was more reaction.  They were in a self-perpetuating cycle.  They came at life with a negative “perceptual set” and because of that they perceived more events as negative and their bodies were upset by what they perceived.  The PROBLEM for them is that what they saw as negative wasn’t by its very nature negative.  They were in a self-fulfilling loop.
  3. PEOPLE CAN LEARN TO INCREASE THEIR PERFORMANCE.  Perhaps the most interesting aspect of our research was that people can learn to develop “positive perceptual sets”.  Learning required first and foremost, a clear understanding of the limitations of having a “negative perceptual set” and a desire to learn to perform at more effective level.  The single most important aspect of learning was that each subject had to use him or herself as the standard for change.  There was no outside standard of behavior.

RESEARCH FINDINGS:  SLEEP AND DREAMS

  1. SLEEP:  We found that when a person with a “negative perceptual set”, as found in their neuroticism test scores) experienced a disrupted sleep physiology.  The more distrupted their sleep the long it took them to go to sleep and less beneficial was their sleep.  The dreams of subjects scoring high on the neuroticism scores were characterized by passivity, non-expressive, confused feelings, filled with unknown dream characters, and took place in unknown settings.
  2. DREAMS:  The sleep and dreams of people with “positive perceptual sets, i.e. evidenced by their socres on self-actualuation test)” showed completly opposite sleep and dream research results.  Their sleep was far more efficient in that they went to sleep faster, had more coherent physiological sleep patterns and their dreams were characterized by active behavior, expression, clear feelings, known characters and known settings.  Turns out people with “positive perceptual sets” were happier in both waking and sleelp.

CONSULTING:  I began my consulting career with the with the McKinsey partner firm of W.E. Johnson Associates.  When Mr. Johnson become the CEO of Scientific Atlanta I was brought in to help restructure that firm.  This led to consulting engagements with Certainteed, MCI, Avon, and Ascom Timeplex and a rewards-based program for BBDO Worldwide, Chrysler, Mitsubishi, FOX TV, Clear Channel Radio, SiriusXM.

TECHNOLOGY:  The problem with traditional consulting is that it is top down.  Starting in 1994 I founded one of the early Internet companies Perform.com to provide corporations a suite of performance enhancing tools.  Perform developed a comprehensive suite of Internet-based management tools for J.P. Morgan Chase, Deutsche Bank, CNBC, Comedy Central, KN Energy, Ascom Timeplex, Anderson Consulting, Watson Wyatt,  Cargill, the French global conglomerate Saint Gobain and Avon.  Perform.com’s technology suite for corporations delivered the performance enhancing tools:

  1. APPLICATION:  360 Degree Performance Reviews:  Perform.com developed the technology for corporations to provide feedback to every employee.  Unlike top-down performance reviews the 360 Degree Performance Review used early AI to offer feedback and analytic comparisions between how an employee is seen by managers, co-workers, and subordinates and self.  The individualized reports presented each employee with a grid which helped the employee understand areas of improvement both in terms of communication with others and goals.
  • Our research found that the highest performing employees were consistently rated higher by managers, co-workers, and subordinates than they rated themselves.
  • Conversely, the lowest performing employees were consistently rated lower  by managers, co-workers, and subordinates than they rated themselves.
  1. APPLICATION:  Goals, Tactics, and Timelines:  Perform developed the technology to cascade the company’s goals from the CEO to the janitor.  Our technology made it possible for every person in the company to see his or her goal progess, the goal progress of teams, divisions and the company as an integrated entity.  Most importantly, each employee started the day with an updated To Do List based on his or her goals.  As key component of this To Do List was what actions by other employees or teams were needed to ensure successful task achievement.
  2. APPLICATION:  Job Process Analysis: Perform developed a unique application that helped each employee define the critical components of jobs, identify the issues interfereing with or helping with the effective achievement of those job components.  For an example, using the Job Process Analysis Tool an employee could identify which other teams helped or hindered goal achievement.  In this regard it was possible for a corporation for the first to discover where the organizational bottlenecks were.
  3. APPLICATION:  The Business War College:  Perhaps one of the most unique processes Perform.com developed was The Business War College.  In our work we found it exceptionally useful to bring together teams from different departments together in order for them to understand first hand how the work of one team or division impacted the results of others.
  4. APPLICATION”  Survey Systems:  Perform developed real-time survey systems so that corporates could “pulse” customers and employees on critical marketing and operational issues.

SUMMARY:  Team-Based Management:  An unexpected finding from all of the data was the emergence of the concept of Team-Based Managemet (TBM).  We found in certain company that teams, given real-time data could more effectively achieve their goals than those teams who were controlled by managers.  Throughout our word we found that managers were consistently the cause of failed initiatives.  Using our 360 Degree Performance Management Tool we were able to quickly identify those managers and offer them training or help them transition to other positions.

SEVEM PUBLISHED BOOKS

I have written one book on management. The Mindful Manager

See my other works: Life ZonesPsychological Fitness,  and Going Sane

I have written three books on dreams.  The Dream Makers, Dreaming and Waking,  and The Functional Analysis of Dreams.

I have written three books on coaching in the world of psychology and business.   Psychological Fitness, Life Zones, and Going Sane.

Psychological Fitness is a handbook which lays out skills. This skills taken from research are aimed at improving a person’s performance in life.

Life Zones is a book which uses anthropology to identify four very distinct zones in which human behavior takes place.

  • The Public Zone which is where people interact with strangers.  In this zone they are specific rules of behavior.  The main behavior rules are giving others’ space, keeping political and religious beliefs private and understanding everyone has the same right to be there as you.
  • The Social Zone is where people interact with work collegues, teammates, neighbors and anyone else engaged in a common pursuit.  The main behavior rules are performance, sportsmanship, and training.
  • The Personal Zone is where people interact with friends.  The main behavior rules are loyalty, trust, and communication.
  • The Intimate Zone is reserved for spouse, significant other and those family members who are committed to staying connected regardless of the external stresses and pressures.

Going Sane is a book that lays out a path to self-actualization.  The first step is understanding past influences, the second step is countering ineffective skills, the third step is putting new skills into action and the fourth step is integration of steps 1, 2, and 3 into a new level of performance.

SIXTEEN PUBLISHED RESEARCH ARTICLES

Article 1: American Psychological Association.  The Personal Orientation Inventory and the Eysenck Personality Inventory as outcome measures in a private outpatient clinic.

Administered the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) to 221 psychotherapy patients participating in a programmatic, ongoing therapeutic modality and to 134 undergraduates serving as a comparison group. Results indicate a shift toward the self-actualizing POI profile with increasing time in therapy, replicating the findings of previous research. EPI results indicated increasing Extraversion and decreasing Neuroticism scores with increasing time in therapy. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). Journal Citation

Article 2:  Journal of Psychotherapy Theory Research & Practice.  The Personal Orientation Inventory and the Eysenck Personality Inventory as outcome measures in a private outpatient clinic.

Results indicate a shift toward the self-actualizing POI profile with increasing time in therapy, replicating the findings of previous researchJournal Citation

Article 3: Journal of Clinical Psychology.  The functional analysis of dreams: A new theory of dreaming. Article first published online: 21 FEB 2006. DOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(198001)36:1<5::AID-JCLP2270360102>3.0.CO;2-U.  Copyright © 1980 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company  Journal Citation

Article 4:  Journal of Clinical Psychology.  Volume 33Issue 3pages 807–820July 1977

A new Process Scoring System for dreams was developed and applied in an intensive single-S case study that spanned 5 1/2 years and 754 dreams. In it two hypotheses derived from a new transformative theory of dreams were tested. Both the transformation hypothesis, which holds that it is possible to shift from a symbolic to a directly expressive mode of dreaming, as well as the parallelism hypothesis, which holds that the expression of affect in dreams parallels the expression of affect in waking, were supported by the results. In contrast to Freud’s analytic theory, which deals with content and interprets dreams as coded symbolic messages, our transformative theory focuses on dynamic dream processes and view dreams as pictures of feelings. Journal Citation

Article 5:  Applications of the Process Scoring System to Waking, Dream and Therapy Reports.  Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep. 1978.

Extended the Process Scoring System Originally developed for measuring dream dynamics and content, to waking and therapy experiences and applied it in a study of 5 new and 5 experienced Ss in an intensive outpatient psychotherapy. Two areas were examined: First, differences on process and content variables related to length of time in therapy and, second, the parallel relationship in these variables between waking, dream and therapy experiences. The Process Scoring System proved useful in measuring these variables in all three types of experiences. The results indicated significant differences between the new and experienced patients and measurable interaction between the waking, dream, and therapy areas.  Journal Citation

Article 6: A reapplication of the process scoring system for dreams.  JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY.  Volume 33, Issue 3, July 1977, Pages: 844–848, Kathryn Hartshorne, Richard Corriere, Werner Karle, Alan Switzer, Joseph Hart, Stephen Gold and Jerry Binder.  Article first published online : 21 FEB 2006, DOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(197707)33:3<844::AID-JCLP2270330350>3.0.CO;2-2

The first application of the new Process Scoring System for dreams was made in an intensive longitudinal case study of 1 S over a 5 1/2 year period. In this second application, the dreams of a sample of 5 experienced Feeling Therapy patients were compared to those of 5 control Ss. As in the first study, considerable support was found for both the transformation hypothesis, which holds that it is possible to shift from a symbolic mode of dream behavior to a directly expressive one, and the parallelism hypothesis, which holds that the expression of affect in dreams parallels the expression of affect in waking and vice versa. Full-text · Article · Aug 1977 · Journal of Clinical Psychology.  Journal Citation 1, Journal Citation 2

Article 7:  Toward a new theory of Dreaming. Journal of Clinical Psychology. Volume 33Issue 3pages 807–820July 1977.  Article first published online: 21 FEB 2006. DOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(197707)33:3<807::AID-JCLP2270330344>3.0.CO;2-N. Copyright © 1977 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company

A new Process Scoring System for dreams was developed and applied in an intensive single-S case study that spanned 5 1/2 years and 754 dreams. In it two hypotheses derived from a new transformative theory of dreams were tested. Both the transformation hypothesis, which holds that it is possible to shift from a symbolic to a directly expressive mode of dreaming, as well as the parallelism hypothesis, which holds that the expression of affect in dreams parallels the expression of affect in waking, were supported by the results. In contrast to Freud’s analytic theory, which deals with content and interprets dreams as coded symbolic messages, our transformative theory focuses on dynamic dream processes and view dreams as pictures of feelings.  Journal Citation

Article 8: The functional analysis of dreams: A new theory of dreaming. Karle, Werner; Corriere, Richard; Hart, Joseph; Woldenberg, Lee.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 36(1), Jan 1980, 5-78.

Summary:  Presents a new theoretical, clinical, and research approach to dreams. Part I briefly describes the functional theory of dreams, and contrasts the functional approach with the more familiar interpretive approach. Part II describes research that has been conducted using the functional system of analysis: a longitudinal case study that spanned 5½ yrs. and a total of 754 dreams and comparison of the dream patterns of 2 groups of Ss—a therapy group and a non-therapy control group. The functional analysis system is also expanded to include evaluation of therapy sessions and waking events. Part III integrates the theory with the functional scoring system, including how individual dreams are scored with the Process Scoring System, how the functional approach relates these dreams to the dreamer’s waking activities, and how dreams are worked in with therapy when a functional approach to psychotherapy is used. Implications of the functional approach and the future of functional analysis in dream research, therapy outcome research, clinical work, and other applications are discussed in Part IV. (2½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).  Journal Citation

Article 9: Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy. Physiology & Behavior, Volume 19, Issue 3, September 1977, Pages 419-423.

Summary:  Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients’ dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.  Journal Citation 1,  Journal Citation 2

Article 10:  PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF THE SPONTANEOUS K-COMPLEX. ROBERT SCOTT, WERNER KARLE, ALAN SWITZER, JOSEPH HART, RICHARD CORRIERE, LEE WOLDENBERG. Perceptual and Motor Skills. Volume 46, Issue 1 (February 1978) pp. 271-287 doi: 10.2466/pms.1978.46.1.271

Summary:   A study covering three nights and two studies were carried out to investigate the psychophysiological correlates of the spontaneous K-complex in relation to intense psychotherapy.  The study produced evidence that the K-complex was not consistent and stable within or across nights and that its variability might be sensitive to psycho-emotional influences.  Results indicate that nights after therapy differed significantly from baseline nights and a significant interaction took place between subjects and therapy on one or more variables of the K-complex and eye movement indices. Study investigated the psychophysiological correlates of the spontaneous K-complex in relation to psychotherapy.  Results indicated that nights after therapy differed significantly from baseline nights and a significant interaction took place across one or more variables of the K-complex and several eye movement.  Journal Citation

Article 11: EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY ON REM LATENCY AND REM TIMEPerceptual and Motor Skills.  Volume 51, Issue 1 (August 1980) pp. 319-324 doi: 10.2466/pms.1980.51.1.319.  WERNER KARLE, MICHAEL HOPPER, ALAN SWITZER, RICHARD CORRIERE, LEE WOLDENBERG

Summary.-This study investigated the effect of a functional psychotherapy on the sleep EEG patterns of 6 patients. Contrary to original expectations no significant group differences in REM time and REM latency were found between two nights following therapy sessions.  The study found no significant differences in REM time and REM latency between two nights following therapy sessions and two normal nights.  However, across the four nights patients exhibited an average REM latency of 71 min, which was significantly shorter than that recorded in an independent study the same design and a similar subject population.   Journal Citation 1; Journal Citation 2; Journal Citation 3

Article 12:  PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY.  PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN FEELING THERAPY10 early, 10 middle, and 10 late patients in therapy were measured for differences on two standardized psychological tests (Personal Orientation Inventory and Eysenck Personality Inventory) and on responses to individual and group report questionnaires.  Results showed that the three groups had Journal Citation

Article 13: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN FEELING THERAPY.  The study recorded pulse, temperature, and blood pressure before and after therapy.  A matched control group of college students were compared across the same parameters.  The findings revealed that the therapy group significant reduction in all parameters following therapy while the control group showed no change. Journal Citation

Article 14:  Preliminary study of psychological changes in feeling therapy.  W Karle, J Hart, R Corriere, S Gold… – Psychological reports, 1978 – amsciepub.com

Summary: 10 early, 10 middle, and 10 late participants in an intense, community-oriented psychotherapy (feeling therapy) were measured for differences on two standardized psychological tests (Personal Orientation Inventory and Eysenck Personality Inventory)Journal Citation 1Journal Citation 2

Article 15: Maintenance of psychophysiological changes in feeling therapy.  

Summary:  Two earlier studies that post therapy patients demonstrated significant reduction in temperature, blood pressure and pulse. This study investigated the maintenance of those changes over a ten day period among a group of five experienced and five inexperience patients.  The study showed that experienced patients maintained reduced temperature, blood pressure and pulse readings vs. inexperienced patients. Journal Citation

Article 16:  The Transformation of Dreams. Ph.D. Thesis.  University of California, Irvine, 1975.  Journal Citation